or, The Numinous Treasure Catalogue of Mushroom Plants

(a English translation of the 11th century text based on Tiziana Lippiello's Italian translation)

1 竊以延命之術,本因餌藥長生。鴻寶宛祕之書論云:仙人使鬼。是以廣成子居崆峒山上,示道治而授軒轅。赤松子昇崑崙宮,服水玉而教炎帝。仍隨風雨上下,究察機祥,遊歷名山,顧觀草木,闡驗幽昧。芝英一作精形品萬端,實難辨別,故畫圖記,著狀貼傳,請撾尋求,得臻仙路耶。
It is our humble opinion that, in the art of longevity, it is of paramount importance to ingest herbal drugs to prolong one's life years. The treaties that make up The Secrets of the Garden of the Great Jewel read: "The Immortals rule the demons." This is why Guang Chengzi settled on Kongtong mountain and, after having discussed the doctrine of the Dao, passed it on to Xuan Yuan. Similarly, Chi Songzi went up to the Kunlun palace, ingested the liquid jade and passed on the method to Yandi. It is only after following these practices that it is possible to go up and down together with the wind and rain, to be able to scrutinize the mechanics and wonders of the universe, to wander through the Sacred Mountains, to see and recognize the various plant species and to explore what appears dark and mysterious. The forms and types of zhi essences are innumerable, and it is really difficult to identify and distinguish them all. Therefore, we present the illustrations together with the texts in which they are represented and described, in the hope that, with their help, it is possible to seek and find the way that leads to sublime immortality.

2 青玉芝,生於揚州山。其味甘酸,服之十二萬歲。王子喬食,仙矣。蒼虎守之。依圖取服,有四重,第二重有二枝,蓋莖並皆青也。
The green jade zhi grows on Yangzhou Mountain. It tastes both sweet and sour. Eat it and live one hundred twenty thousand years old. Wangzi Qiao became an Immortal by it. A green tiger guards it. It is according to the illustration: it has four vertical sections, the second section has two branches. The caps and stems are green all over.

3 赤玉芝,一作子食芝。生於郁州山,狀如此,其味苦。赤松子食之,得仙。赤虎、赤魚守之。依圖取服,莖蓋赤,有二重,下重有二小芝,上重二小芝,並有蓋。
The red jade zhi grows on Yuzhou Mountain, looks like this, and tastes bitter. Chi Songzi ate it and became an Immortal. A red tiger and fish guard it. Following the illustration, it is possible to find it and eat it. The caps and stems are red all over. There are two vertical sections, the lower section has two small zhi, and the upper section has two small zhi, all with caps.

4 黃玉芝,生於蓬萊山,其色黃,辛。東王父食之,壽九萬歲,仙矣。黃虎、黃魚守之。三重,下重有三枝,一有生九蓋。蓋莖並黃也。
The topaz zhi grows in Penglai Mountain. The King Father of the East ate it and became an Immortal, living ninety thousand years. It is yellow in color, and its flavor is pungent. A yellow tiger and a yellow croaker guard it. It has three sections: the lower section has three branches, and the top one has nine caps. The stem is covered in yellow as well.

5 白玉芝,生於方丈山中,其味辛白,蓋四重,下一重上,有二枚生,並有三枚生上重,或生大石之上、黃沙之中、腐木之根、高樹之下、名山之陰。得而食之,仙矣。白虎守之。
The white jade zhi grows in the heart of Fangzhang Mountain. It tastes pungent. It has one white cap. It has four vertical sections: on the bottom one two secondary branches grow paired, on the top one, there are another three. Sometimes it grows on a large rock in the midst of yellow sand or from the rotten roots of a large tree. You can find it on the northern side of the Sacred Mountains. Eat it and become an Immortal. A white tiger guards it.

6 黑玉芝,生於龜山之中,其味甘酸。鮮于子食之,得仙矣。傍有黑虎守之,其狀如此。上有二小枝重生,其色黑,有四重,莖蓋並赤。
The black jade zhi grows in the heart of Gui Mountain. The taste is sweet, acrid, and refreshing. Yuzi ate it and achieved immortality. Nearby a black tiger stands guard. It looks according to the illustration. On the top grow two black shoots. It has four vertical sections. The stem and cap are both red.

7 五帝玉芝,生於嵩高名山中,有五色及五變五行,四時有味,以四時取服之,為萬年仙矣。有三重,下二重二枝相對。
The five emperor jade zhi grows on Songgao, the Holy Mountain of the Center. It has five different colors and the flavor varies according to the five phases and the four seasons. It is harvested year round. Eat it and live ten thousand years and eventually you will become an Immortal. It grows in three vertical sections: the two lower sections consist of two parallel branches.

8 青帝玉芝,生於名山之中大樹之下,黃雲覆之,青蓋、赤裏,其莖白,其味酸。春甲乙日取食之,令人不老仙矣。
The green emperor jade zhi grows at the foot of a large tree in the midst of the Sacred Mountains. Yellow clouds hang over it. It has a green cap and a red interior, while the stem is white. It is acrid in taste. It is harvested in spring on a "jiayi" day (2nd, 12th, or 22nd day of the lunar month). Eat it and you will never grow old and eventually you will become an Immortal.

9 赤帝玉芝,生於名山之陽,赤蓋、黃裹、白莖。上有赤雲,其味甘苦。夏採食之,令人得四千年仙矣。
The red emperor jade zhi grows on the southern slope of the Sacred Mountains. The cap is red, the interior is yellow, and the stem is white. A red cloud hangs over it. The taste is sweet and bitter. It is harvested in the summer. Eat it: you will get to live four thousand years and eventually you will become an Immortal.

10 黃帝玉芝,生於名山之上,上有五色雲。黃蓋、白莖其味甘苦,食之令人不驚恐,長生三萬年,得仙矣。
The yellow emperor jade zhi grows in the Sacred Mountains. Variegated clouds hang over it. It has a yellow cap and white interior and stem. The taste is sweet and bitter. Eat it: there will no longer be anything that can scare you, you will gain longevity that lasts thirty thousand years, and finally you will achieve immortality.

11 白帝玉芝,生於名山之陽重石之間,白蓋、青莖、裏黑,其味甘。食之令人得三千年仙矣。
The white emperor jade zhi grows amidst imposing rocks on the northern slope of the Sacred Mountains. It has a white cap and a green stem. The interior is black. The taste is sweet. Eat it: you will live for thousands of years and finally you will achieve immortality.

12 黑帝玉芝,生於名山之陰大谷之中,黑雲覆之。黑蓋、青裏、黃莖,其味甘酸。冬間採食之,今人不老,得仙矣。
The black emperor jade zhi grows up in the midst of deep valleys on the northern side of the Sacred Mountains. Black clouds hang over it. It has a black cap, a green interior, and a yellow stem. The taste is sweet and acrid. It is harvested in the winter. Eat it: you will never grow old and ultimately you will achieve immortality.

13 東方芝,生於名山之陽大谷中,青赤裏,二重白蓋,青莖,其味酸。食之延年,十萬歲仙矣。
The zhi of the east grows in the midst of deep valleys on the southern slope of the Sacred Mountains. It is green in color, while the interior is red. It develops vertically on two levels. It has a white cap and a green stem. The taste is acrid. Eat it: you will extend your life up to one hundred thousand years and eventually you will become an Immortal.

14 南方芝,生於名山之陽,赤色、赤蓋,赤莖,有三枝,其味苦。用竹刀採之,陰乾百日,食之如錢,得三萬歲仙矣。
The zhi of the south grows on the southern slope of the Sacred Mountains. It is red in color: the cap and stem are both red. It has three secondary branches. The taste is bitter. Pick it with a bamboo knife and, after drying it in the shade for a hundred days, ingest one "qian" (~5g): you will live for thirty thousand years and finally you will become an Immortal.

15 中央芝,生於名山之陰,白蓋,黃莖,裏黑,枝如一莖蓋,二枝要半,上屈頭,垂如懸蓋。傍有黃羊捍守之。用木刀採食之,仙矣
The zhi of the center grows on the northern side of the Sacred Mountains. It has a white cap, a yellow stem, and a black interior. The main branch consists of the stem and cap. Two other branches rise from about halfway up the stem and point down the tops which appear as catching hats. A yellow goat guards it. Pick it with a wooden knife and then eat it: you will become an Immortal.

16 西方芝,生於名山之陰,白蓋、黑裏、青莖,有三枝俱生,其味甘辛,食之萬年仙矣。
The zhi of the west grows on the northern slope of the Sacred Mountains. It has a white cap, a black interior, and a green stem. It has three branches that grow together. The flavor is sweet and spicy. Eat it: you will live ten thousand years and eventually become an Immortal.

17 北方芝,生於名山之陰,黑蓋,莖三枝並生。其味甘美,食之仙矣。入水不溺,不老,得八萬年。有黑牛守之。
The zhi of the south grows on the northern slope of the Sacred Mountains. It has a black cap and stem. It has three branches that grow together. The taste is sweet and pleasant. Eat it: you can immerse yourself in the water without getting wet, you will never get old, and you will get to live eighty thousand years. Eventually you will become an Immortal. A black ox guards it.

18 石臼芝,生於少室山上,有赤雲,兩邊黃虎守之。蓋赤、黑莖,與石玉芝相對生。取之當齋戒沐浴三十日,雄雞過轉鳴,自稱天齋將軍,使者彩衣,冠帶玄服。往取食之一合,六十萬歲。一作十六。生大石之間,其味甘酸,下根四方,高三尺。
The stone mortar zhi grows on the Mountain of the Small Hall. Red clouds hang over it. On the sides two yellow tigers guard it. The cap is red and the stem is black. It grows in front of the jade zhi. It is collected after a fast and a purification of thirty rounds: a rooster will arrive and will proclaim himself Envoy of the General of the Celestial Temple. With elegant clothes, a headdress, belt, and black robe, approach it and pick up. Ingest one "ge" (~100 ml): you will live six hundred thousand years. It grows among imposing rocks. The taste is sweet and acrid. The root is square and three "chi" (~33 cm) long.

19 木神芝,生於嵩高山之陰,黃蓋,黑裏,上有赤雲及朱雀守之。以六月戊己辰日,採而食之,得九千歲,令人仙矣。狀如四方石,有一坦者。

20 鬼菌芝,生於名山之陰,白蓋,狀如甑,二鬼守之,見人即滅。以夜採之,陰乾百日,食如刀圭,所向盡服。織女服之,仙昇天矣。

21 人威芝,生於嵩高少室太室之山。狀如人,赤色、戴蓋,乍黃乍赤,味甘。食之,令人不老,服之十萬年仙矣。

22 金精芝,生於華山,白蓋,莖上有白雲,狀如雀雞。其味甘辛。十月壬日採之,陰乾百日,食之八千歲。韓眾食之仙矣。

23 黃芝,生於黃土山,黃蓋三重,其味甘。食之與天地等。一莖色白。

24 生金芝,生於名山之陽,白蓋、赤裏、赤莖。春夏採之,陰乾百日,食之一合,陰病除,增年也。

25 龜威芝,生於常山深淵之中,其色青黑,龜文蓋,青白裹,莖黑,味酸苦。採而食之,為萬歲仙矣。

26 龍威芝,生於太山之陰,青莖、紫蓋、白裏,其文似龍蛇,其味甘酸。春採食之,令人十六萬年仙矣。

27 鳥威芝,生於南嶽丘山之陰,赤蓋、黑莖,其味酸。食之令人身輕,不老萬歲仙矣。

28 火精芝,生於霍山之陰,赤蓋、黃裏、黃莖。上有赤雲,似鳥雞之形,其味甘。五月丙午日採之,九千年仙矣。

29 火錫芝,生於名山之陽大樹之傍,色赤如火,青莖、赤蓋,炎起五枝似火,其味甘苦。夏採而食之,延年得仙矣。

30 赤松子芝,生於垸山,有千歲松樹者,生於其間,狀似木人形。採之,陰乾百日,食之,與天地等仙矣。

31 木精芝,生於名山之中,冬即木本如紡車,捃拾採揀無時。其色白,其味甘苦。食之令人身輕仙矣。無蓋似叉,莖赤。

32 木神芝,生於齊泰山,山名曰東岳,青蓋、赤裹、赤莖,上有青雲如雞之狀。以壬日採而貪之,千萬歲仙矣。

33 天目芝,生於名山之陽,其色青,莖半有二枝,上如曲蓋,赤,覆大蓋上。竹刀採之,陰乾百日,食之,五萬年仙矣,有黑雲覆之。

34 天心芝,生於名山之陽夾石之上,青蓋、赤莖,其味酸。以竹刀採之,陰乾百日,食如一爪甲,成三千年仙矣。上有赤雲,下有白羊守之。

35 白英芝,生於太山之陽,青色、青,五莖枝相對。甘美,食之,萬歲仙矣。

36 水神芝,生於恒山,黑蓋,青莖,上有黑雲如馬形。採食之,六千歲仙矣。

37 土芝,生於名山之陽大澤之中,白蓋,如甆,味辛苦。食之不寒不熱,夏採服之,仙矣。

38 望玉芝,生於名山之陰岡闕中,黃蓋,赤莖,味甘。食之令人二千年仙矣。下有三莖並生,蓋青,莖赤。上有二莖,黃蓋,赤莖。

39 木文芝,生於名山之中,上青,下裏黃,味甘酸。春採食之,七百年不老仙矣。

40 銅芝,生於名山之陰源泉深谷之中,反如甑,色青黃赤,味辛苦。食一合,長生仙矣。

41 天絳芝,生於陵谷,黑蓋,赤裹,赤莖,味甘小辛。食之令人不寒不熱,六千年仙矣。

42 茯苓芝,以冬至日生兔絲下,狀似牛蹄,黑色,味甘。食之令人千里外見物,壽萬年仙矣。

43 北方芝,生於土山。狀如蛇,赤色、白裏,味甘酸。食之令人不老二萬年仙矣。

44 木菌芝,生於名山之陰谷中樹木上,生木三節,色青,味甘辛。食之萬年仙矣。

45 風精芝,生於名山之中。青蓋,莖三枝並生,味甘。銅刀採食之,萬年仙矣。

46 靈精芝,生於名山之陰。赤蓋,二重紫莖。食之二萬年仙矣。上有蒼赭雲守之。

47 鳥文芝,白蓋,黑莖,裏有文長六尺,厚四寸。味甘。食之四萬歲矣。

48 玉菌芝,生於名山之陽。仲夏、季夏採之,陰乾百日,食之十萬年仙矣。倣夜精芝樣,面赤,下黃白,朱莖,赤蓋,反上生。

49 晝精芝,秋生於名山之陽。赤色,二枝並生。以木刀採之,陰乾百日,食之一合,令人三萬歲。莖蓋並赤。

50 夜精芝,生於名山之陰。青益、青莖、味酸,蓋反仰向外,有露,飲之令人三萬歲。

51 白玉芝,生於太山谷中,葉青,下赤,每邊三重赤莖。採而食之,八萬歲矣。

52 朝精芝,夏生。白色、無蓋,如方石,味苦。銅刀採之,陰乾百日,食之萬年仙矣。上有二人守之。

53 春精芝,青赤色,反蓋,有角,上有二子下垂,味苦。銅刀採之,無間多少,食之三萬歲。有五色雲覆之。

54 土菌芝,五色,乍黃、乍青、乍赤、乍白、乍黑,上有三枝,有子。食之,延年仙矣。

55 木菌黃芝,生於大石中。葉廣二寸,長一尺,青色,三葉並生,下如方石。冬夏生,味甘美,食之不老仙矣。

56 夏精芝,生於名山之中。赤色蓋,二子如珠,蓋中生,味甘。竹刀採之,陰乾百日,食之四萬年仙矣。

57 秋精芝,生於坎陷中,旁多有香草,黃蓋,赤裏,三枝並曲生,頭垂下,青莖。食之,萬歲。

58 白雲芝,有五色圓如鼓,上有六子,赤色。莖亦赤色,味酸。食之萬年仙矣。

59 左神芝,黑蓋,反向天,白莖,有女人守之。飲中露,二千年。生於名山之中。

60 右神芝,生於名山。青蓋,白莖,三枝。骨刀採之,陰乾百日,食如瓜甲許,壽萬年。下有白鹿守之。

61 木祿芝,青色,有支文,生於名山,味甘。食之萬歲。上有五莖,青蓋。

62 石菌芝,生於名山。夜則有光。夏午日採取中央赤者食之,萬年仙矣。白莖,頭中似蓮樣。

63 赤圭芝,生於名山。白蓋,裏有紋,青莖,味辛。食之不老,二百神明從仙矣。

64 鐵精芝,秋生。紫蓋,黃裏,五枝味甘。銅刀採之,食如木耳許,壽三千年仙矣。上有五色雲覆之。

65 柯精芝,生於名山之陰。白蓋,白莖,木刀採之,陰乾百日,食之如豆大,萬歲仙矣。中央黃者可食。

66 土菌芝,生於名山。青蓋,白莖,食之萬年仙矣。

67 石芝,生於名山。白蓋,白莖,食之令人六萬歲仙矣。方寸七,以上日三服之。

68 石精芝,秋生。赤蓋,白裏,赤莖,味酸。食之為萬年仙矣。上有赤鳥守之。

69 河閉芝,秋生。黃色,三枝並生。飲上露,九千年仙矣。反蓋向上。

70 水菌芝,青蓋,白裏,青莖。食之日一合,去病為萬歲仙矣。

71 獸菌芝,生於名山松栢樹下。白蓋,白莖。夏至日採之,日取一合食,三年變化仙矣。

72 海闕芝,秋生沙石上。四重,似蓋,青色,赤莖,二枝並生。上有露,飲之萬年仙矣。上有五色雲覆之。

73 雲瑤芝,精秋生。青莖,青葉,上有白鳥守之。飲上露,千年仙矣。

74 青菌芝,青蓋二重,白裏,白莖,味甘酸。日食一合,千年仙矣。

75 雲芝,青蓋,黃莖,味如蜜。食之千年得仙矣。上有五色雲覆之。

76 崑崙芝,秋生。黃蓋二重,黃莖,其味甘。上有露,飲之三千年仙矣。

77 人精芝,生於名山。頭青,蓋白,裏赤,莖三枝並生,味甘。飲上露,為萬年仙矣。

78 山英芝,生於名岳深崖陰近濕處。赤色,如四重浮圖級。食之,千年仙矣。

79 紫芝,似人頭,味辛。食之,令人心通,不死身輕耳。

80 冬如芝,秋生太山之陽。黃蓋,三黃莖,別根同蓋,味甘辛。陰乾百日,食之,二千年仙矣。

81 赤精芝,夏生。黃蓋,青莖,白裏,九二重。食之五千年仙矣。兩邊五色草。

82 紫石芝,味苦,赤蓋,黃裏,赤莖。食之令人不死仙矣。

83 紫蓋芝,三莖共本,下圓上方二尺紫蓋,味甘。食之三千年仙矣。

84 赤精芝,赤色炎起,味甘。鐵刀採之,陰乾百日,食之二千年仙矣。二人守之似火炬樣。莖炎俱赤。

85 迎山連芝,食之,日行千里,八千歲仙矣。三枝,中枝頂有蓋,共根生,紫色,下二枝無蓋。

86 紫山芝,赤紫色,四重,赤蓋。食之三千年仙矣。

87 紫芝,白蓋,黃裏,似月,白莖。食之有光明仙矣。

88 木芝,食之千年仙矣。

89 水芝,食之千年仙矣。似王字樣

90 重紫芝,黃蓋,赤莖,二枝並生相連。食之,仙矣。

91 六柱紫芝,赤蓋,赤莖,黃裹。食之得仙矣。頂有蓋,下三重無蓋。

92 紫科芝,赤色,白裏,似蛇,味苦。除寒熱邪氣,日食一合,仙矣。秋取之。

93 紫芝,味甘,白蓋,三枝,莖上黃下赤。食之仙矣,骨體滿實,腸化為筋。上有蓋,下一重無蓋。

94 重紫芝,狀如此。味甘苦。食之仙矣。白蓋如起,黃莖,赤根,三枝,頂上有蓋,下一重二枝無蓋。

95 紫芝,赤蓋、白裏、赤莖、味甘。食之延年仙矣。

96 科芝,赤表,白裹,味甘。冬服之令人不老而仙,似蛇尾。

97 紫芝,赤蓋、白裏、黑莖,味甘。秋採食之,仙矣。

98 火芝,赤蓋、白裏、黑莖、味苦。冬夏採食之,仙矣。上有五色雲覆之。兩枝交叉分生。

99 科芝,三重,赤色、蓋白、味甘辛。食之延年得仙矣。

100 水芝,赤蓋、白裏、白莖。三枝,通上出蓋,食之,延年仙矣。

101 宮芝,食之延年不老仙矣。總有十一段也。朱蓋,赤莖。

102 闕芝,夏秋採服方寸七,與天地等畢。紫蓋,紫莖,七段。當中一枝長,兩蓋似珠輪。

103 上祿芝,食之仙矣。乘虛行也。青蓋、朱莖。十一段,上六,中二,下三。

104 玉精芝,大海中生。味甘。服之二千年仙也。朱蓋,玉莖,朱色。

105 代侯芝,上圓下方。春一作五月。採食之,壽萬年也。似桶朱色。

106 曇芝,食之六年,上有紅雲守之。朱蓋,朱莖,朱葉,有六葉。

107 不死芝,食之萬年。上有紅雲,紫蓋,紫莖,四枝無蓋。

108 朱芝,食之令人千歲仙矣。朱蓋,朱莖。

109 天威芝,青色,四時採食之,千萬年。有雲赤色覆之。青蓋,青莖。

110 辟精芝,生海中。青色,食之千年矣。其狀似人形。

111 天寒芝,黃色如人形。食之千歲仙矣。

112 赤英芝,味辛。四時採食之,壽三千年也。二枝交叉,一枝無蓋,一枝頭朱,一頭似花未開。

113 天芝,四時採,陰乾百日,服方寸七以仙矣。朱蓋,紫莖。

114 天陸芝,銅刀採食之,為三千年仙矣。兩莖並生,朱色,似蓮藥未開。

115 天闕芝,食之萬年仙矣。二莖並生,朱蓋,白裹。

116 地精芝,二羊守之。服上露者,六千年仙矣。三莖並生,朱蓋青莖。

117 日精芝,味甘。竹刀採,陰乾百日,服方寸七,五千年仙矣。朱色,三枝,無蓋,共一枝。

118 月精芝,竹刀四時採之,食如豆,五千年仙矣。一人守之,黃蓋,黃莖。

119 四時精芝,服上露,二萬年。二青龍守之,赤色,上有五色雲覆之。二重,朱蓋,朱莖。

120 黑精芝,味甘酸。骨刀採食之,二千年仙矣。陰乾百日,下有羊守之。紫蓋,紫莖,有兩葉。

121 木精芝,味甘。食之二千年仙矣。陰乾百日,上有三馬。骨刀採之。蓋紫色,反向上。

122 水精芝,味苦。夏採食如爪甲,五千年仙矣。青蓋,四莖穿出蓋上,無蓋,白莖。

123 金精芝,味甘。木刀採食之,千歲仙矣。陰乾百日,食之五段,似火焰起。朱色,一朱蓋,朱莖。一蓋如初生,莖青色。

124 水芝,生於眾水旁,味苦。夏採食如爪甲,十萬年仙矣。蓋紫色,頂有三角,莖青色,通出無蓋。

125 雨精芝,夏生。味甘,食無拘多少,六千年仙矣。其蓋青,紫莖,有四苗生。

126 水精芝,生山水旁。青黑色,四枝並生,蓋仰,味小苦。飲上露,十萬年仙矣。

127 雲精芝,生於華山,味酸。竹刀採之,食無多少,九千年仙矣。蓋紫色,莖白。

128 虎精芝,生於華山之陰。黃色,如虎皮,味甘,食之令人不老,聰明仙矣。莖朱色。